the armenian genocide/ottman turks – hitlers idols

yes, aynali (some stupid writer on another blogsite)
there was an armenian genocide that killed over 1.5 million armenians!
i’ve asked you an question ” do you support the acknowledgement of the armenian genocide, done in 1915 by the ottoman turks? “

only to see, he has deleted my legitimate question from his journal. you sir, are an idiot! denial is the problem, always has been the problem!
hitler’s “idea” of a ethnic cleansing, sure came from the ottoman empire, the concentration camps, the massgraves. as hitler said: ” anyone remember the armenians ?”

the reason i am writing this, is to make some of you simpletons aware that there was indeed a GENOCIDE!
and it hits home, i am of ukrainian/ moroccon descent and the ottoman turks have invaded morocco and also algier the neighbor’ing country of morocco. i am almost certain that somewhere down in my ancestry line there is some ottman turk blood in my family tree, which i despise from the bottom of my heart!!!

nevertheless, i want to state some facts here for the history inclined or the ones blinded by ignorance!

– – –

It’s Time to Remember

by Serj Tankian

On September 27th, my band, System of a Down, and hundreds of our fans, the Armenian National Committee of America, Axis of Justice, and the Armenian Youth Federation rallied in front of Speaker Dennis Hastert’s offices in Batavia, Illinois, an hour outside of Chicago.

I told the crowd about my grandfather, Stepan Haytayan, a 97 year-old survivor of the Armenian genocide and my only link to the distant past.
I promised him that I would try to talk to Dennis Hastert about the genocide resolution and about how it’s important to honor the survivors by acknowledging the truth that our own archives attest to.

My grandfather was lucky and survived the genocide; John Dolmayan, System’s drummer, never got to know his. His grandfather suffered from emphysema and was shot and killed by a Turkish solider in 1915 after coughing and being discovered hiding in a tree.

We stood together to ask Speaker Hastert to ‘do the right thing’ and keep his commitment to hold a vote on the Armenian Genocide Resolution, officially recognizing Turkey’s destruction of 1.5 million Armenians between 1915 and 1923.

Some in the US government and various special interest groups have repeatedly warned about the consequences of angering Turkey, a NATO ally, over their denial of the Armenian Genocide.

But by acting as apologists for Turkey, Congress is actually holding back Turkey’s progress. By holding a vote, we will be doing the right thing morally and, at the same time, encouraging Turkey to deal honestly with its past and more openly with its future. Scores of nations have passed resolutions recognizing the Armenian Genocide. Recently, the European Parliament made Turkey’s acceptance of the genocide a pre-requisite to acceptance into the European Union.

Not recognizing an atrocity such as this for political expediency, commerce, or other reasons is simply cowardice and unacceptable.

It is time to recognize that history does and will repeat itself, unless we stop that cycle and demand accountability. The 20th century is stained with genocides all over the globe since Turkey’s murderous attempt at racial extermination in 1915.

We are currently ignoring the first genocide of the 21st century in Sudan.

Had the Allied powers who defeated Turkey in WWI, including the United State, along with the World Court recognized, condemned, and punished the Ottoman Turks for their genocide after WWI, there are many who believe that Hitler would not have ventured ahead with his own genocidal plans.

As Hitler often said in his speeches prior to the holocaust, “Who remembers the Armenians?”

It’s time to remember.

– – –
Genocide:

Enver Pasha’s response to his crushing defeat at the Battle of Sarikamis was, in part, to blame the Armenians. He ordered that all Armenian recruits in the Ottoman forces be disarmed, demobilized and assigned to labor camps. Most of the Armenian recruits were either executed or turned into road laborers – few survived.

On April 24, 1915 (few days after the beginning of the troubles in Van), the Young Turk government arrested several hundred – or, according to Turkish records, over two thousand – Armenian intellectuals. It is believed that most of these were soon executed. This was quickly followed – May 25, 1915 – by orders from Talat Pasha (Minister of the Interior) for the forced evacuation of hundreds of thousands – possibly over a million – Armenians from across all of Anatolia (except parts of the western coast) to Mesopotamia and what is today Syria. Many went to the Syrian town of Dayr az Zawr and the surrounding desert. The fact that the Turkish government ordered the evacuation of ethnic Armenians at this time is not in dispute. It is claimed, based on a good deal of anecdotal evidence, that the Ottoman government did not provide any facilities to care for the Armenians during their evacuation, nor when they arrived. Some records suggest that the Ottoman troops escorting the Armenians as a matter of course not only allowed others to rob, kill, and rape the Armenians, but often participated in these activities themselves. In any event, the forseeable consequence of the government’s decision to move the Armenians was a significant number of deaths.

Starved Armenian childrenThe Ottoman government ordered the evacuation or deportation of many Armenians living in Anatolia, Syria, and Mesopotamia. In the city of Edessa (modern Şanlıurfa) the local Armenian population, worried about their fate, revolted (early 1916) against the Ottoman government and took control of the old city. Ottoman forces attacked the city and bombarded it with artillery but the Armenians held out. The German General who was in command of the closest Ottoman army, Baron von der Goltz arrived and negotiated a deal with the Armenians. In exchange for an Armenian surrender and disarmament, the Ottoman government agreed not to deport them. However, the Ottoman government broke the terms of the agreement and did deport the Armenians.

It is believed that over a million were deported. The word “deportation” could be considered as misleading (and some would prefer the word “relocation”, as the former means banishment outside a country’s borders; it is said that Japanese-Americans, for example, were not “deported” during World War II). Many historians believe that the evacuations were, in practice, a method of mass execution which led to the deaths of many of the Armenian population by forcing them to march endlessly through desert, without food or water or enough protection from local Kurdish or Turkish bandits, and that the members of the special organization were charged to escort the convoys (which meant their destruction).

– – –
The Camps:

It is believed that twenty-five major concentration camps (Dayr az-Zawr, Ra’s Al Gul, Bonzanti, Mamoura, Intili, Islahiye, Radjo, Katma, Karlik, Azaz, Akhterim, Mounboudji, Bab, Tefridje, Lale, Meskene, Sebil, Dipsi, Abouharar, Hamam, Sebka, Marat, Souvar, Hama, Homs and Kahdem) existed, under the command of Şükrü Kaya, one of the right hands of Talat Pasha. The majority of the camps were situated near the Iraqi and Syrian frontiers, and some were only temporary transit camps.Others are said to have been used only as temporary mass burial zones—such as Radjo, Katma, and Azaz—that were closed in Fall 1915. Some authors also maintain that the camps Lale, Tefridje, Dipsi, Del-El, and Ra’s al-‘Ain were built specifically for those who had a life expectancy of a few days. Like in the cases of the Jewish KAPOs in the concentration camps, the majority of the guards inside the camps were Armenians.

Even though nearly all the camps, including all the major ones, were open air, the rest of the mass killings in other minor camps, was not limited to direct killings; but also to mass burning, poisoning and drowning.

– – –

The Special Organization (Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa)

While there was an official ‘special organization’ founded in December 1911 by the Ottoman government, a second organization that participated in what led to the destruction of the Ottoman Armenian community was founded by the lttihad ve Terraki. This organization technically appeared in July 1914 and was supposed to differ from the one already existing in one important point; mostly according to the military court, it was meant to be a “government in a government” (needing no orders to act).

Later in 1914, the Ottoman government decided to influence the direction the special organization was to take by releasing criminals from central prisons to be the central elements of this newly formed special organization. According to the Mazhar commissions attached to the tribunal as soon as November 1914, 124 criminals were released from Pimian prison. Many other releases followed; in Ankara a few months later, 49 criminals were released from its central prison. Little by little from the end of 1914 to the beginning of 1915, hundreds, then thousands of prisoners were freed to form the members of this organization. Later, they were charged to escort the convoys of Armenian deportees. Vehib, commander of the Ottoman third army, called those members of the special organization, the “butchers of the human specy.”

The organization was led by the Central Committee Members Doctor Nazim, Behaeddin Sakir, Atif Riza, and former Director of Public Security Aziz Bey. The headquarters of Behaeddin Sakir were in Erzurum, from where he directed the forces of the Eastern vilayets. Aziz, Atif and Nazim Beys operated in Istanbul, and their decisions were approved and implemented by Cevat Bey, the Military Governor of Istanbul.

According to the same commissions and other records, the criminals were chosen by a process of selection. They had to be ruthless butchers to be selected as a member of the special organization. The Mazhar commission, during the military court, has provided some lists of those criminals. In one instance, of 65 criminals released, 50 were in prison for murder. Such a disproportionate ratio between those condemned for murder; and others imprisoned for minor crimes is reported to have been generalized. This selection process of criminals was, according to some researchers in the field of comparative genocide studies, who specialize in the Armenian cases, clearly indicative of the government’s intention to commit mass murder of its Armenian population. Also, according to records, physicians participated in the process of selection; health professionals were appointed by the war ministry to determine whether the selected convicts would be fit to apply the degree of savagery of killing that was required.

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11 Responses to “the armenian genocide/ottman turks – hitlers idols”


  1. 1 Carlito Brigante June 15, 2006 at 11:10 am

    I think the genuine reason why armenians blame turks for massacres is that they lost the battle against them.

    the so-called genocide, whether this name is appropriate or not, was ordered by Ottoman high-ranked idiots.

    e.g. enver pasha, talat pasha, abdulhamit( sultan)

    these names caused the death of not only armenians, but also 13 millions of turks.
    enver pasha, for instance, ordred to attack russian in winter, and 100,000 troops were frozen to death. they lost against the cold.

    And, regarding “genocide”, it has been ordered to relocate armenians. ans Hamidiye alaylari (paramiliter groups) were formed. These groups were formed by Kurds.
    And they were given the authority to plunder and kill armenians.

    If you look at the route of armenians, from eastern anatolia, to kilikia, passes through the kurdish populated areas.

    And, today, I cannot understand why armewnians forget about these.

    Why??
    what I said the truth.

    Another subject;
    regarding hitler, it was not true.

    And one more thing, why the armenians hate jews, whereas turks have a positive attitude towards them.

    why, the neo-nazis blame turks and jews for everything?
    just curious..

    Regards

  2. 2 Carlito Brigante June 15, 2006 at 11:20 am

    moroccon idiot!!..

    ottomans havenot invaded algiers and morocco. they were a part of ottoman empire, but not invaded.

    The French invaded algiers and morocco. Same France, killed over 1 millian Algerans…
    Wasn’t that a GENOCIDE???
    why not??

    Fucking arabs like you, took a lot from Ottoman empire, yet gave nothing. never fought for them. But you became soldiers of britain and france.and killed your own people.

    you are a fucking RACIST.

    your hatred sure does prove what an idiot you are..

    Stupid moron..
    read learn the truth.

    but I am sure you cannot, because you are a racist asshole..

  3. 3 Ame October 22, 2006 at 9:16 am

    Why must we dwell in the passed? Do you not realize that souls are timeless…Let us move forawrd please.

  4. 4 Ame October 22, 2006 at 9:17 am

    The only thing we can do is just never let it happen again.

  5. 5 zum October 22, 2006 at 5:04 pm

    Ame, I would appreciate if you would leave a email adress here, so I can reply to you.

    re: souls are timeless?

    well, the souls of Armenia are crying out loud and deserve to be heard and the turkish government needs to acknowledge the “armenian genocide”!

  6. 6 Enver Pasha November 18, 2006 at 4:46 am

    Every action has a reason. It is good there is less armeninas left on earth. armenians are even uglier than arabs.

    Rest in peace Enver Pasha.

  7. 7 zum November 18, 2006 at 10:20 am

    thank you for coming to my blog and leaving a comment. sadly , it is was a non constructive comment –

    yet i do ( i am half arab and not ugly) give you the freedom to speak, even if i don’t agree with your reasoning.

    zum~

  8. 8 Danny November 18, 2006 at 8:37 pm

    This was an intriguing article; the memories” of activist Serj Tankian cannot substitute for genuine history, so let’s look at the second piece that pretends to be scholarly:

    Disloyal Ottoman-Armenians played a big hand in the defeat of Sarikamis, working their mischief from behind the lines. The following month, in a Dashnak conference in Tiflis, it was revealed Russia had given a quarter-million rubles to finance Ottoman-Armenians into betraying their nation. Dashnak plans were underway for a long time, stockpiling weapons in all corners of the empire, waiting for a chance for war, to strike against their Ottoman nation when the Ottoman nations was at the weakest. Read Louise Nalbandian’s chapters on the Armenian Revolutionary committees’ strategies, particularly the Hunchak charter.

    Enver Pasha did not frivolously disarm the Armenian soldiers in his armies. He would have been crazy to do so, after his bankrupt nation had taken the trouble and expense to train them, and when every man was desperately needed to ward off the combined might of Russia, England and France. The reason why they were disarmed was because they could not be trusted. There is no proof that Armenian soldiers who were turned into laborers (the engineering corps is a normal part of any army) were executed as part of a plan. There was one massacre of Armenian soldiers, and Vehib Pasha put a couple of the perpetrators on trial and hanged them. Otherwise, those Armenian soldiers who died from famine were not unique. The vast majority of Ottoman soldiers died from famine and disease.

    On April 24, 235 Armenians were arrested and sent to prison. (It’s true, some Turkish records say 2,345. This is a mistake, and should not be repeated; even the writer of the above article knows it, and had the good sense to give “several hundred” the factual priority.) We’re told Armenians were expulsed from all of Anatolia, “except parts of the western coast.” That doesn’t make sense if there was a “genocide.” For example, Istanbul Armenians largely escaped this program. Would it have been conceivable for Hitler to have carried his Final Solution by exempting the Jews of Berlin?

    “The fact that the Turkish government ordered the evacuation of ethnic Armenians at this time is not in dispute. ” If it’s not in dispute, then the Internet would not be plastered with all of these propaganda articles, hoping to convince the unwary that this genocide is an established fact. In order for these allegations to not be in dispute, there must be hard, solid evidence. Where is it?

    “The Ottoman government did not provide any facilities to care for the Armenians during their evacuation.” The truth is, they did not provide for adequate facilities. But the other truth is, they tried to take care of the Armenians as best as they could. If they didn’t, no Armenian would have survived. The Ottoman government was inept in the way this huge program was handled, taken on at the last minute out of desperate wartime need, mistakes were made, and there were never enough resources. The nation was bankrupt. When large operations are initiated, that is not unusual. Witness the mistakes made under the guidance of the wealthiest nation, in modern times, with the invasion of Iraq.

    There were many revolts throughout the empire, and it’s often said, as this article alludes, that the reason was self-defense. But take the example of Van. That took place before the “genocide” was ordered, as the article says, on May 25. (This law’s date was actually May 27, and it did not become “legal” until very early June.) The ones who were defending themselves were actually the Turks, outnumbered by up to 30,000 Armenian rebels (most Turkish soldiers were at the fronts). It was the Armenians who attacked. The leader of the insurgents, Aram Manoukian (who was given the governorship of Van by the Russians afterwards, as a reward for betraying his Ottoman nation) stated clearly in an Armenian newspaper, Haiastan, that what was happening was “rebellion.” (The Parisian newspaper, Le Temps, concurred in Aug. 13, 1915: “At the beginning of this war, Aram took up arms and became the head of the insurgents of Van.” The key words are “at the beginning” of war. If Aram went on the move in 1914, from what could he have engaged in “self-defense”?)

    “It is believed that over a million were deported.” Boghos Nubar thought 600-700.000. Bravo to this author for telling us that “deportation” is not the right word to use, here. “the deaths of many of the Armenian population by forcing them to march endlessly through desert…” If that were the idea, no Armenian could have survived. The word “desert” is a cheap way of evoking sympathy, as if these people were stranded among sand dunes. “The members of the special organization were charged to escort the convoys (which meant their destruction).” That is a “speculation” of Vahakn Dadrian’s, and has no basis in fact. The Special Organization had its hands full with fighting a war, and had nothing to do with the movement of the Armenians.Prof. Guenter Lewy has examined Dadrian’s evidence; see his analysis in http://www.meforum.org/article/748. Dadrian’s lack of scholarly ethics has been exposed.

    It’s truly ridiculous to make the “camps” section appear as concentration camps. Even the article says they were “open air,” and Armenians were mainly free to come and go as they pleased. There was an “Anne Frank”-style young Armenian lad named Hrant Sarian, who recorded his family’s experiences as they were happening, and there was nothing Auschwitz or Dachau-like about these “camps.” They actually stayed in homes, or even what passed for hotels, for the most part. This is a terribly misleading article.

    The rest of this propaganda is not supported by the facts. Yes, there were criminals released to serve in the army, but as Guenter Lewy reports in his book, such was the norm in the case of the nations involved, including the United States. To make it seem as though criminals were released to insure the extermination of Armenians is is terribly, terribly deceitful. The fact is, some of the gendarmes were awful and certainly some took advantage of the Armenians. But many guarded and otherwise took care of the Armenians dutifully, and some died for their efforts in saving Armenian lives.

    What is the source for Vehib’s saying of the “members of the special organization, the ‘butchers of the human specy'”? I ran a search for it now, and realized this is an article from Wikipedia. No wonder. Wikipedia is a place where anyone can put in their opinions and what substitutes for facts, and those with the tenacity and obsession will emerge as the victors in getting their “facts” on board. Wikipedia is not a legitimate forum from which to get actual historical facts.

    This is all propaganda. One does not point to unverified statements, or statements by people with ulterior motives or prejudices (for example, Vehib was a prisoner of the British and their lackey Ottoman administration at war’s end; he might have said things to save himself from the illegal courts that were being forced by the victors), and unverified photographs as “evidence.” The first photo here, the horrifying shot of the mother and child, is obviously posed, and was that woman really naked or was she asked to undress for effect? This is not to say Armenians did not suffer horribly, but Armenians were far from the only famine victims; everyone in the Ottoman Empire was subjected to lack of food and medicine, even the soldiers. The first line of defense against the nation, the soldiers! were dying in the thousands — yes, thousands — of famine. Pictures and anecdotes of suffering people, when everyone was suffering, is not proof of genocide. If there is no proof of a crime, then it becomes mortifyingly unethical to accuse anyone of a crime, especially a high crime. Those with open minds are invited to read Dr. Guenther Lewy’s book; he managed a highly respectable level of scholarship by looking at all the relevant information, and he was not defending Turks by any stretch of the imagination. (In fact, it’s almost insulting how the greater number of Turkish/Muslim victims was almost ignored by Lewy, but the topic, of course, was the Armenians.) The book is called, “The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide.”

  9. 9 Danny November 18, 2006 at 8:44 pm

    CORRECTION: Sorry, I should have reread what I had written before posting. Regarding the lines: “‘The fact that the Turkish government ordered the evacuation of ethnic Armenians at this time is not in dispute.’ If it’s not in dispute…” I was thinking “genocide.” Of course, this statement is entirely true.

  10. 11 Oguz tolga December 6, 2006 at 10:39 am

    Dear friends,
    Armenian genocide is a great lie and Diaspora is a great lier.Look all the correspondance within British Government and officials from Malta.It is a sad story of the betrayal of Armenian riots to their government,Ottoman Empire.
    Please read carefully and don’t forget the lies.
    Corsially
    Oguz Tolga
    Istanbul Turkey
    On 27 May 1915, the Ottoman Empire passed a law for the resettlement of the people who posed security threat to the Ottoman Army. This obviously included especially the Armenians who were engaged in rebellious activities. The relocation was painful because displacing thousands of people and resettling them was not an easy task. The year 1915 witnessed the killing of some Armenians by some elements of the local Muslim population for revenge on their route to their new settlements. Some government officials also contributed to this campaign. However, Talat Bey made it clear that the relocation of the Armenians was not aimed at massacring them. In a coded telegram of 19 August 1915 to the highest ranking officers of the places from where the Armenians were forced to immigrate and the places to which they were relocated, Talat Bey explained the aim of the relocation as follows:
    The objective sought by the government in evicting the Armenians from their resettlement and moving them to the areas marked for resettlement is rendering this ethnic element unable in engaging in anti-government activities and prevent them from pursuing their national aim of founding an Armenian government. The annihilation of these people is, not only out of question, but also the authorities should ensure their safety during their movement and see to it that they are properly fed, making the necessary expenditures from the Refugee Fund. Apart from those evicted and moved, the Armenians allowed to stay should be exempt from further evictions. As communicated earlier, the Government has taken a firm decision not to move families of soldiers sufficient number of artisans as well as Protestant and Catholic Armenians. Firm measures should be taken against those who attacked the moving parties or any gendarmes or officials who instigate such attacks. These people should be immediately expelled and court-martialed. Provinces and sandjaqs will be held responsible for the recurrence of any such events.[25]

    Compared with the decisions taken at the Wansee meeting, it is clear from the position taken by the government that the extermination of the Armenians was not the objective of the 1915 Relocation. Equally true that many Armenians lost their lives during the relocation. The number of the Armenians and how they lost their live does not fall within the scope of this paper which compares the features of the official Nazi and Ottoman positions here.

    It also becomes clear from the above quotation that not all the Armenians but some of them were relocated in contrast with the Nazis who tried to exterminate all the Jews wherever they were found. The Nazis also tried to exterminate other ethnicities like the Gypsies, Poles, Slavs and all political opponents and homosexuals. As explained in the relevant section of this paper, the aim of the Nazis was to create a Europe with no inferior races. However, the Armenian relocation of 1915 contradicts with this total campaign, as an infamous Armenian author accepts that sometimes the Armenian Catholics and Protestants as well as the Armenians of Istanbul and Izmir (Smyrna) were exempted from the deportation decrees.[26] As pointed out by Halaçoğlu, of course, when some those allowed to stay were seen engaged in harmful activities, they, too, were relocated irrelevant of their creed.[27]

    Aftermath of the World Wars and Justice

    A special international tribunal was formed for the prosecution of those who committed war crimes in the Nazi era. The Nuremberg Tribunal condemned twelve to death by hanging. It is striking that only twelve people were responsible for the extermination of six million Jews and others. By prosecuting twelve was supposed to bring justice. Justice has been a key word with regard to the Armenian case as well.

    As the relocation was beginning, the Allies issued a joint declaration on 24 May 1915. They alluded to the “assistance of Ottoman authorities” in harming the Armenians and announced that “they will hold personally responsible … all members of the Ottoman government and those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres”.[28] This declaration is a result of the wide coverage by the European press of the relocation which was presented as an attempt to massacre of the Armenians by the Armenian committees and some Allies that wanted the American entrance in the World War I on their side. However, the Americans maintained their neutrality towards Turkey.

    When the Armistice was signed on 30 October 1918, Turkey lay at the mercy of the European Allies. As they announced, they had to punish all those who were responsible for the alleged Armenian massacre. Justice, however, required appropriate jurisdiction, legal evidence, and the machinery to administer the applicable laws. There were two different mechanisms with regard to the Armenian case, one is domestic and the other one is international, to punish the alleged criminals. By the end of the war, the ruling party’s leading figures fled from the country and a new government with strong opposition, if not hostility to, the former ruling party was installed by the sultan. The new government formed a special Court Martial whose statutes were set forth on 8 May 1915. The principal task of the tribunal was the investigation of the alleged “massacres and unlawful personal profiteering” as well as the charge of “overthrow of the government”.[29] The second charge makes it clear that the tribunal directly involved in politics and the punishment of those associated with the former governing party. The political considerations of the special tribunal were reflected on its composition and decisions as well as the way it operated. It was composed of non-professionals of law, composed of Armenian members who may have not been completely unbiased, operated under pressure, sometimes with intervention, of the government and Allies which occupied Istanbul, relied on the testimonies of the people who had never been to the places where the massacres allegedly taken place and testimonies of the children who were even under the age of five as eye-witnesses.[30] Since the criminals of the Holocaust were not punished by the domestic tribunals, but by an international tribunal, there is no need to go deeper in the Turkish Court Martial formed after the World War I.

    The first attempt to form an international tribunal was made by the Ottoman government which requested two lawyers each from Denmark, Spain, Sweden and Holland “to participate in the international committee to be formed to investigate if any injustices were made during relocation”.[31] The delegates of the international committee were to visit places where the alleged massacres occurred to make investigations and to establish the facts which would have led to prosecution of alleged criminals. However, the attempt failed since the mentioned neutral countries were reluctant to participate.

    The inevitable biased decisions of the Turkish ‘special’ tribunals under the circumstances touched upon above caused disappointment in the Turkish population, often reflected in the Istanbul press. This prompted the British to initiate measures for the transfer of the detainees, who were arbitrarily arrested by the new government in Istanbul, often, by the directives of the occupying Allied forces, to British custody in Malta.[32] The total number of the Malta deportees were more than one hundred and forty. The prominent members of the Turkish society, like the former Grand Vizier, speaker of parliament, chief of general staff, ministers, members of parliament, senators, army commanders, governors, university professors, editors, journalists composed the deported.[33]

    On 4 August 1920, the British Cabinet decided that “The list of the deportees be carefully revised by the Attorney General with a view to selecting the names of those it was proposed to prosecute, so that those against whom no proceedings were contemplated should be released at the first convenient opportunity.”[34] And the Attorney General wrote to the Foreign Office that the “British High Commissioner at Istanbul should be asked to prepare the evidence against those interned Turks whom he recommends for prosecution on charge of cruelty to native Christians. ” [35]

    Sir Harry Lamb, the political-legal officer of the British High Commission at Istanbul, stated on the issue of evidence of the alleged massacre:

    “No one of the deportees was arrested on any evidence in the legal sense…The whole case of the deportees is not satisfactory…There are no dossiers in any legal sense. In many cases we have statements by Armenians of differing values…The Americans must be in possession of a mass of invaluable material…” [36]

    Then, the British Foreign Office decided to ask the assistance of the US State Department. On 31 March 1921, Lord Curzon telegraphed to Sir A. Gedes, the British Ambassador in Washington, the following:

    “There are in hands of His Majesty’s Government at Malta a number of Turks arrested for alleged complicity in the Armenian massacre…There is considerable difficulty in establishing proofs of guilt…Please ascertain if United States Government are in possession of any evidence that would be of value for purposes of prosecution.”[37]

    The Embassy returned the following reply:

    “I regret to inform Your Lordship that there was nothing therein which could be used as evidence against the Turks who are being detained for trial at Malta. The reports seen…made mention of only two names of the Turkish officials in question and in these case were confined to personal opinions of these officials on the part of the writer, no concrete facts being given which could constitute satisfactory incriminating evidence…I have the honour to add that officials at the Department of State expressed the wish that no information supplied by them in this connection should be employed in a court of law…Having regard to this stipulation and the fact that the reports in the possession of the Department of State do not appear in any case to contain evidence against these Turks…, I fear that nothing is to be hoped from addressing any further enquiries to the United States Government in this matter.” [38]

    The Attorney-General’s Department returned the following reply:

    “…It seems improbable that the charges made against the accused will be capable of legal proof in a Court of Law…Until more precise information is available as to the nature of the evidence which will be forthcoming at the trials, the Attorney-General does not feel that he is in a position to express any opinion as to the prospect of success in any of the cases submitted for his consideration.” [39]

    Upon the receipt of this reply, W.S. Edmonds, Under-Secretary in the Eastern Department of the Foreign Office, minuted:

    “From this letter it appears that the changes of obtaining convictions are almost nil… It is regrettable that the Turks have confined as long without charges being formulated against them…”[40]

    Sir H. Rumbold, the High Commissioner in Istanbul, wrote:

    “Failing the possibility of obtaining proper evidence against these Turks which would satisfy a British Court of Law, we would seem to be continuing an act of technical injustice in further detaining the Turks in question. In order, therefore, to avoid as far as possible losing face, in this matter, I consider that all the Turks… should be made available for exchange purposes.” [41]

    From now on, the Turkish detainees at Malta were not considered as “offenders” for prosecution, but rather as “hostages” for exchange against British prisoners in Anatolia.[42] Subsequently all Turkish deportees at Malta were exchanged with the British prisoners of war. The Law Officers of the Crown abstained from accusing anyone of Turkish deportees of massacre of the Armenians and all Turkish deportees were released and repatriated without being brought before a tribunal. The findings of the British obviously contradicts what the Tribunal found in the Holocaust trials.

    Conclusion

    This paper examined the main differences of the Holocaust and Armenian case. It has become clear that they had not much in common. Anti-Semitism and Nazism provided the ideological background for the Holocaust. There is no doubt that without anti-Semitism and racist ideology, the laws discriminating Jews would not have passed. The Holocaust was the intentional and planned organized crime as expressed by the Wansee Conference. Not only the Jews but also other ‘inferior races’ became the victims of the Nazis. Moreover, no victim involved in any activity against the Nazis. The perpetrators were brought before the justice after the World War II.

    The Armenian case greatly, if not completely, differs from the Holocaust. No anti-Turk or anti-Muslim element, let alone anti-Armenism, existed in the Ottoman legal and social system. In contrast with the victims of the Nazis, the Armenians formed revolutionary organizations and carried out activities to terrorize the civilian population of both Muslim and non-Muslim. The Armenians’ corroborations with Russians, hostile of the Ottomans, in the World War I left the government with no alternative but to relocate those who posed security threats to other parts of the Empire. It is unfortunate that during the relocation lost their lives. But there is no evidence that the casualties were intentional. On contrary, official legal documents provides that the casualties were to be kept minimum. Although the Western press widely covered the relocation and told the stories of massacres as a apart of the war-time propaganda, the alleged criminals were released even without charges being formulated against them before an international tribunal, because neither Britain nor the USA was able to provide any evidence capable of legal proof in any court of law.

    The following quotation from a Nobel Prize winning Israeli statesman, Shimon Peres, closes the discussion:

    “We reject attempts to create a similarity between the Holocaust and the Armenian allegations. Nothing similar to the Holocaust occurred. It is a tragedy what the Armenians went through but not a genocide…Israel should not determine a historical or philosophical position on the Armenian issue. If we have to determine a position, it should be done with great care not to distort the historical realities.”[43]

    * Ibrahim KAYA: International Law Lecturer. Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universty and USAK – ISRO. BA (Ankara), LLM (Nottingham, UK), PhD (Keele, UK). ikaya@usak.org.uk

    [1] For example see Richard G. Hovannasian, ‘Etiology and Sequele of the Armenian Genocide’, in George J. Andreopulos (ed.), Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions, (Philedelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), pp. 125-126.

    [2] For a recent example of this see Vahakn N. Dadrian, ‘The documentation of the Armenian Genocide in the Light of Persistent Turkish Denials’ Conference paper delivered at Generations of Genocide, Wiener Library, 26-27 January 2002, London/UK.

    [3] Heat W. Lowry, ‘The U.S. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians’, Political Communication and Persuasion, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1986, pp. 111-140.

    [4] The facts given in this part is based on the information supplied by Haim Bresheeth, Stuart Hood and Lisa Jansz, The Holocaust, Turkish translation, Soykırım,(İstanbul: Milliyet Yayınları, 1996). Various internet resources, including thinkquest, Massuah, the Institute for the Study of the Holocaust, remember.org, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum are also referred to. The views contrary to those which summarized here may be found at fpp.co.uk and the works of David Irving.

    [5] Emil Fackenheim at http://news.bbc.co.uk/low/english/uk/newsid_618000/618352.stm.

    [6] Eight centuries ago the Jews were hunted in Germany, expelled from England, France and finally from Spain in 1492.

    [7] Yavuz Ercan, Osmanlı Yönetiminde Gayrimuslimler (Non-Muslims under the Ottoman Rule), (Ankara:Turhan Kitapevi, 2001), p. 3.

    [8] See Ercan, Osmanlı Yönetiminde…,pp.1-23.

    [9] Vartan Artinian, The Armenian Constitutional System in the Ottoman Empire, (Istanbul), p.11.

    [10] Yves Ternon, The Armenians, (Delmar:Caravan Books, 1981), pp. 37, 38 and 49.

    [11] Jamanak, Facts from the Turkish Armenians, Istanbul, 1980, p. 4.

    [12] For a full record of the Turkish-Jewish relations during the Ottoman Empire and the Holocaust see Stanford J. Shaw, The Jews of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic, (New York: New York University Press, 1991) and Turkey & The Holocaust, (London: MacMillan Press, 1993).

    [13] Telford Waugh, Turkey, Yesterday, to-Day and To-Morrow, (London: Chapman & Hall, 1930), p. 130.

    [14] Hovannisian, Etiology and Sequence…, p. 119.

    [15] Shavarsh Toriguian, The Armenian Question and International Law, (Beirut: Hamaskaine Press, 1973), p. 88.

    [16] Düstur, II, pp.938-961.Also cited by Gülnihal Bozkurt, Gayrimuslim Osmanlı Vatandaşlarının Hukuki Durumu (The Legal Status of the Non-Muslim Ottoman Citizens), (Ankara: Turkish Society for History, 1996), p. 181.

    [17] Artinian, The Armenian Constitutional…, p. 59.

    [18] Artinian, The Armenian Constitutional…, p. 65.

    [19] Ternon, The Armenians, pp. 74-82.

    [20] Yair Auron, The Banality of Indifference, (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2000) pp. 102 and 112-113.

    [21] Interview with a Jewish journalist and activist, Lucien Wolf, of the Daily Graphic, 6 July 1896. (Quoted by Auron, The Banality of…, p. 117.)

    [22] Louise Nalbandian, Armenian Revolutionary Movement, (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963), pp. 110.111.

    [23] Mandelstam, La Societe des Nations et les Puissances Devant le Probleme Armenien, 1970, pp. 472-473. (Quoted by Toriguian, The Armenian Question…, p.98.)

    [24] Journal of Military History Documents, 81, December 1982, Document No: 1830.

    [25] BOA, Chipper Desk, No: 55/292. (Also published in Armenians in Ottoman Documents Directorate of Ottoman Archives, Ankara, 1995, pp. 94-95. The English translation quoted by Yusuf Halaçoğlu, ‘Realities behind the Relocation’ in Türkkaya Ataöv, The Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, (Ankara: Turkish Historical Society, 2001), pp. 111-112.

    [26] Hovannisian, Etiology and Sequence…, p. 124.

    [27] Halaçoğlu, Realities behind …, p. 122.

    [28] FO 371/2488/51010 (28 May 1915) (Also cited by Vahakn N. Dadrian, ‘Genocide as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I Armenian Case and Its Contemporary Legal Ramifications’ The Yale Journal of International Law, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1989, p. 262.)

    [29] Takvimi Vekayi, No: 3540, 5 May 1919 and Takvimi Vekayi, No: 3571, 13 June 1919.

    [30] See Senol Kantarcı, “Speeches on the Armenians Attributed to Atatürk and his Help to the Victims of Armenian Terrorists and ‘Court Martials’” Armenian Studies, Vol. 1, Issue 4 and Nejdet Bilgi, Ermeni Tehciri ve Boğazlayan Kaymekemı Mehmed Kemal Beyin Yargılanması(Armenian Relocation and the Trial of Governor of Bogazlayan Mehmet Bey), (Ankara: Köksav, 1999).

    [31] BOA, HR:MÜ. 43/17, 6 May 1919.

    [32] Dadrian, Genocide as a Problem of…, p. 285.

    [33] Bilal N. Şimşir, The Deportees of Malta and the Armenian Question, (Ankara: Foreign Policy Institute, 1992), pp. 18-33.

    [34] FO 371/5090/E.9934: Cabinet Officer to Lord Curzon of 12.8.1920.

    [35] FO 371/6499/E.1801: Law Officers to Foreign Office of 8.2.1921.

    [36] FO 371/6500/E.3554: Inclosure, minutes by Sir H.Lamb, dossier Veli Nedjdet.

    [37] FO 371/6500/E.3552: Curzon to Geddes. Tel No 176 of 31.3.1921.


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